Internationalization of Indian Enterprises: Patterns, Strategies, Ownership Advantages and Implications

Abstract: The recent spate of large cross-border acquisitions e.g. Tata Steel-Corus, Hindalco-Novelis, and Tata Motors-Jaguar/Land Rover, among others and Greenfield investments by Indian companies have helped in focusing attention on the emergence of new corporate players on the global scene. India’s emergence as a source of FDI outflows is impressive for its level of development. It is argued that the destinations, sectoral composition, motivations, and entry strategies of Indian investments have been changing with magnitudes. This paper examines the sources of Indian companies’ ownership advantages and trends, patterns and implications. It has been argued that the source of their ownership or competitive advantage lies in their accumulation of skills for managing large multi-location operations across diverse cultures in India and in their ability to deliver value for money with their ‘frugal engineering skills’ honed up while catering to the larger part of income pyramid in India. 
Keywords: outward investment, emerging multinationals, Indian multinationals, India, internationalization of Indian companies, acquisitions by Indian companies, ownership advantages of Indian multinationals
JEL Codes: F21, F23.