Demographic Complementarities and Outsourcing: Implications and Challenges for India

Abstract: This paper analyses the implications of differing global demographic trends for India’s competitiveness in outsourcing and offshoring. It also briefly notes the implications of differing demographic trends among the Indian states. The paper argues that demographic complementarities with high-income countries provide India with one-time opportunity to sustain its growth rate and occupy all segments of global outsourcing and offshoring activities. India has used the labor cost advantage to gain reasonable market share in these activities. It however faces serious internal and external challenges in sustaining its international competitiveness, particularly with respect to labor cost. With sustained focus on human resource development, diversification and upgradation policies India can continue to atleast maintain its global market share, and help nurture globally competitive companies.