Abstract: The paper begins by analysing the Brazilian economic development stressing the external sector of its economy. Brazil is already an important product player in food trade and could be, in the future, a very significant player in the international commerce of biofuel and bioproducts. For this reason, this paper also focuses on the Brazilian experiences in the production of food, bioproducts and energy generated by renewable sources taking sugarcan as a specific instance. The Brazilian competitiveness in the agricultural sector required a great deal of research effort and technological improvements, especially in the production of biofuel and bioproducts. On the other hand, some Brazilian studies indicate a noteworthy capacity of this kind of agricultural chain to incorporate the work force in the rural areas. Finally, the paper discusses the feasibility of reproducing abroad the successful agricultural Brazilian experience. This could be a very promising subject for the South-South cooperation.